Consultancy and Expert Witness
About Peter Pallett
BSI and EN Standards ( last updated 14th February 2019)
The information given on this web page is stated in good faith by Peter Pallett and no responsibility can be held for its accuracy or technical content.
Stop Press Very recent Standards news
For further information refer to Temporary Works Latest News on this web site.
- BS 5975:2019- PUBLICATION NEWS
The directors of the Temporary Works Forum met with Senior BSI officials and chairman of the BS5975 committee on 13th February 2019.
The standard will NOT be published in February 2019 as suggested last year.
The standard, when finally published, should significantly update Section Two on the procedural control of ALL temporary works;
including scaffolding, trenching, cofferdams, temporary slopes, backpropping, hoardings, formwork and falsework.
It has addressed many of the concerns, including a request for a simple introduction to procedures, and gives information on
how clients, designers ( principal, permanent and temporary ) managing contractors, principal contractors (PC),
specialist temporary works contractors, suppliers etc. should operate their procedures. All issues already recommended in the 2011 issue
- the PC's TWC being ultimately responsible for the temporary works on the site/project. Apart from the inclusion of a
warning related to a safety issue brought to the committee's attention, the Falsework design Section 3 is unaltered.
- CEN and British Standards
CEN and CENELEC approved on 23rd November 2018 a plan that secures BSI's FULL membership of CEN post-Brexit.
Our future Standards will now have to be confirmed by ALL the 33 countries. We have agreed never to write a conflicting standard.
- Peter Pallett's View on Brexit and British Standards
I wonder how many realise the full implications of the 23rd November CEN/BSI agreement to remain as full members of
Comte European de Normalization (CEN) after Brexit, and following the "one standard for all"
I had previously thought that becoming a Companion Standards Body (CSB) of CEN after Brexit and not a full member was the way
forward. As a Companion Standards Body, like Australia, Canada, New Zealand etc., I had previously thought we could write our own UK
standards, even if in conflict with CEN documents. I was led to believe this was correct by Richard Collins, the BSI Head of European
and National policy who wrote "If BSI were a Companion Standards Body or no member at all, then we could have standards that
would conflict with ENs."
Reading the actual CEN/CENELEC Guide 13 Clause 3.2 CSB obligations would commit the UK to comply with rules set or to be set
in the future by CEN/CENELEC for ever, PLUS we would agree to endeveavour to withdraw the national standards conflicting with any European Standard.
In other words remaining in CEN either as full or CSB members means accepting all future EN standards, produced by the 33 member
countries (EU+) AND to agree never to write anything in any British Standard that doesn't conform. We would also have
to agree never to copy any text from any EuroNorm (EN) into an explanatory BSI code of practice or standard.
BSI produce Standards as specifications for products, codes of practice and guides. Whereas I agree that if we want to sell a product in
an EU country, we need to comply with the relevant EN specification for that product, but why remove at a stroke our right to ever produce
a product specification for a product to trade with the rest of the world - it could be a better standard. I didn't vote for
Brexit to use EN standards for our future worldwide trade, and so become a vassal state of the EU!
Philip Trow (for 10 years sat on BS & EU standards) wrote recently in the DT that " I was amazed at the lengths that the
French and Germans would go to in order to exclude perfectly safe and usable British Products by making their inferior products compliant."
I have experienced the same, and the recent litigation by Dyson on the measuring of vaccuum cleaner capacities with empty bags, is a typical
example. Like Mr Trow, I worry for a future EU ban on right hand drive cars and British electrical plugs - something we'd have no
say on, yet had agreed to comply with in order to follow CEN rules.
We have a reputation in the UK for writing comprehensive codes of practice and guides on subjects of our choice - remaining in CEN or as
CSB would compromise that as we wouldn't be able to explain in a code of practice how to interpret the rules because we would have to
agree not to copy any EN material.
ACTION - I voted for Brexit to be able to be independent and write our own quality standards and codes,
not to follow 33 other countries! In my considered opinion the only correct solution is to campaign to leave CEN/CENELEC.
The replies from my MP and the replies from the Secretary of State, together with the latest BSI position statement above highlight a serious
concern that needs to be addressed. Whereas they are strictly correct in considering EN's as voluntary, as opposed to mandatory regulations,
the Government and BSI don'039;t seem to understand how EN's are used. Have they ever tried selling a product to a client in the EU saying that
the UK better product doesn't comply, but that as the EN is only voluntary, it doesn't really matter!
So please make your views known, tell your local MP, advise your professional institution. All my letters to Daily
Telegraph and/or ICE through the NCE are ignored. It's your future at stake.
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- BS 5975:2008+A1:2011- Code of practice for Temporary Works Procedures and the permissible stress design of falsework.
This amended standard updates Section Two on the procedural control of ALL temporary works; including scaffolding, trenching, cofferdams, temporary slopes, backpropping, hoardings, formwork and falsework.
It includes recommendations for categories of design checks for temporary works, and supports the appointment of a Temporary Works Supervisor on larger sites or where the temporary works are more complex.
The falsework design section at Clause 17.5.1,introduces a simplified design method to European Wind Code ( NA to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005+A1:2010 effective January 2011. ) and includes a revised explanatory wind Annex L.
ORDER FROM BSI: BS 5975:2008+A1:2011, London, October 2011, 218pp, ISBN 978 0 580 74257 6,
£328 by telephone +44 (0) 845 086 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- BS EN 12812: 2008 Falsework - performance requirements and general design.
Published in January 2011 with the UK National Application Document (NAD), specifies the performance requirements for three classes: A, B1 and B2. Limit state design methods are specified for classes B1 and B2. Although it does NOT provide guidance for the structural design of class A it recommends that in the UK Class A be designed to BS 5975.
Designers should note that there are several changes in this edition from the previous 2004 version. Two notable changes to WIND are the removal of the 0.7 factor on wind pressure for falsework erected for less than 2 years, and the increase in the Maximum wind in Load Case 1 from 70% maximum to 100% maximum.
(Note - The NA.8.2 recommends that a minimum probability factor of 0.83 should be used. The forthcomimg BS 5975:2011 will include a simplified wind method for temporary works. )
ORDER FROM BSI: ISBN 978 0 580 60505 5, London, January 2011, (52 pages) by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- BS EN 12813:2004 Temporary works equipment - Load bearing towers of prefabricated components - Particular methods of structural design
Published in December 2004, Describes methods of establishing stiffness and strength by calculation supported by tests for steel or aluminium towers. The vertical load both with or without horizontal loads and with the top restrained or free. The annexes give analysis by first order theory, and by a global test procedure. ISBN 0 580 44835 5
- BS EN 1065:1999 Adjustable Telescopic Steel Props
This is the standard for the thirty-two types of European (including the UK) props. They are classified into five major classes A to E. BS EN 1065 is a product standard giving the characteristic strengths of the props : This is NOT the Safe Working Load of the prop, but the 95% confidence limit for failure load. 35pp ISBN 0 580 32838 4.
Although the information on the UK Type 0, 1, 2, 3 & 4 props, formerly in BS 4074, has been withdrawn, the BS EN 1065 has not un-standardised the previous props. The safe working loads for the UK Type props remains published in BS 5975:1996.
BS 4074 was republished in October 2000 for steel trench struts only.
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- BS 1139-6:2014 Metal Scaffolding. Prefabricated tower scaffolds outside scope of BS EN 1004, but utilizing components from
such systems. Specification.
New specification for configurations of prefabricated tower scaffolds Prefabricated tower scaffolds outside the height limits of BS EN 1004,
Towers with more than one working platform, Large deck or linked tower scaffolds, Cantilever tower scaffolds, Stepped tower scaffolds, Tower scaffolds used as
a means of access and Towers built on base plates instead of castors.
BS 1139-6:2014 applies to prefabricated tower scaffolds subject to windloads up to and including 0.1 kN/m²
ORDER FROM BSI: BS 1139-6:2014, London, 31st December 2014, 34pp, ISBN 978 0 580 83646 6, ( £174
) by telephone +44 (0) 845 086 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- BS EN 13374:2013 Temporary edge protection systems - Product specificaton - Test methods.
Published in June 2013, this updated standard applies to temporary edge protection for flat and inclined surfaces. It has three classes of protection and gives dynamic and static loads together with swinging load tests etc..
Some of the static loads to be applied have reduced and it now requires the structural designer to consider UPLIFT, but doesn't actually state any value! 34 pages, ISBN 978 0 580 76189 8
- Scaffold Boards - BS 2482:2009
The specification for timber scaffold boards was published in July 2009. It introduces TWO grades of board, namely Grade 1.2 for support at 1.2m centres selected visually or by machine stress grading, and a Grade 1.5 for support at 1.5m centres only selected by machine stress grading.
The standard also introduces the concept of "target spans". The 50mm boards are not included.
ORDER FROM BSI: ISBN 978 0 580 54403 3, (24 pages) £138 by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- BS EN 12811-1: 2003 Scaffolds - performance requirements and general design.
Published 16th June 2004 with the UK National Application Document (NAD).
(60 pages ISBN 0 580 43279 3)
The Work at Height Regulations 2005 require that calculations are available for scaffold structures - an exception being when the scaffold is built to a recognised code of practice.
The NASC document TG20:08 Guide on tube and fitting scaffolds has certain pre-designed arrangements of safe heights for Basic scaffolds as unclad, sheeted and with debris netting. The second edition was published in January 2009.
- BS EN 74-1:2005 Couplers for tubes
This standard replaces BS 1139-2.1:1991 and gives the requirements and test procedures for couplers for use with tubes. The values for slip load on couplers are in characteristic terms (i.e.not safe working loads! ) Interestingly, the values for swivel couplers to Class A are now similar to those for the stiffer right angle couplers. First published in September 2006.
( xx pages ISBN 0 580 49096 3 )
- BS 8437: 2005 Code of practice for selection, use and maintenance of personal fall protection systems and equipment for use in the workplace.
Published in May 2005 to support the Work at Height Regulations 2005. It brings together best practice from a range of sources. Gives detailed guidance.
Order from BSI ISBN 0 580 45817 2.
- BS 8454:2006, Code of practice for the delivery of training and education for work at height and rescue
Published in May 2006 to promote the correct training for Work at height.
Order from BSI ISBN 0 580 48250 2
- BS EN 1004:2004 Mobile Access and Working Towers
made of prefabricated elements - Materials, dimensions, design loads, safety and performance requirements
Published in March 2005 it is the EN 1004 December 2004 and supersedes BS 1139 Part 3-1994 which is withdrawn. It gives product information for Class 2 and Class 3 towers with horizontal loads etc and detailed classification requirements. Order direct from BSI as ISBN 0 580 45755 9
- BS 1139-6: 2005 Metal Scaffolding -Part 6 : Specification for prefabricated tower scaffolds outside the scope of BS EN 1004, but utilizing components from such systems.
Published in December 2005 gives guidance on high level towers, linked towers, room scaffolds, cantilevered platform structures and roof scaffolds, for both inside and outdoor use. Order from BSI as ISBN 0 580 47560 3
- BS EN 12810-1: 2003 Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 1: Product specifications.
Published June 2004, 24pp, ISBN 0 580 43908 9
- BS EN 12810-2: 2003 Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 2: Particular methods of structural design.
Published June 2004, 30pp, ISBN 0 580 43909 7
- BS EN 39:2001 Loose steel tube for tube and coupler scaffolds.
This standard introduced for the first time in the UK the thin walled (3.2mm thickness) scaffold tube as a British Standard scaffold tube.
The BS EN 39 gives details of both Type 3 (3.2mm) and Type 4 (4mm) tube and has the significant technical change that tubes will now be supplied galvanised, unless ordered otherwise. It increases the yield stress of tube to 235 N/mm² 18pp ISBN No: 0 580 37960 4
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- BS EN 13670-2009 Execution of concrete structures
This standard provides all the guidance on building concrete structures not contained in the EC2. It includes the UK National Annex. Gives guidance on falsework and formwork, typical deviations and tolerances.
Curing classes introduced ( recommended as Class 2 with 35% of 28d strength, unless specified otherwise.)
Surface finishes now described as Basic, Ordinary, Plain or Special.( Table F.4) These replace the former BS 8110 Type A, Type B etc..
Order from BSI: ISBN 978 0 580 67067 1, London, February 2010, (74 pages) £186 by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- prEN 15113-1 Vertical Formwork - Performance requirements & General Design
The CEN/TC 53 committee decided in September 2008 to STOP work on this document as "the committee does not see any need for the standard."
- BS EN 13377:2002 Prefabricated timber formwork beams - Requirements, classification and assessment
This standard classifies the commonly used timber proprietary waling beams used in formwork into Panel type (P16, P20 and P24) and Lattice type (L24). It gives information on testing, marking and conformity. Values of the structural properties are required for characteristic ultimate shear, bending and bearing.
The informative Annex E then gives "Values for site use" by stating Safe Working Loads. In the National Annex NA, for permissible stress calculations to give traditional safe working loads, the limit state strength needs to be factored, typically by 1.95.
Order from BSI using ISBN 0 580 40939 2)
- UK BS 5268-2:2002 Structural Use of Timber Part 2
This code was officially withdrawn on 31st March 2010. It is a permissible stress code for timber as C16 (old SC3), C24 (SC4) and C27 grades.
The user working properties, based on this code, remain published for temporary works in BS 5975:2008 ( ISBN 978 0 580 60816 2 )
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General and Overseas
- PAS 8811:2017 Temporary Works - Major infrastructure client procedures - Code of practice
Sponsored by both HS2, Network Rail, CrossRail and TWf, the PAS had a significant change of name with the
introduction of words "Major infrastructure" into the title. Hence the current updating of BS5975 will address ALL
procedures and therefore all clients, whereas this PAS will concentrate on the extra items required. It defines client's
responsibilities with regards to temporary works and gives a common set of procedures for use, if required, by UK major infrastructure
clients. This should establish a more consist industry-wide set of TW procedures for MAJOR projects.
ORDER FROM BSI: £80 ISBN 978 0 580 88171 8, London, January 2017,
(42 pages) by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI
- PAS 8812:2016 Temporary Works. Application of European Standards in design.
Published in January 2016 and sponsored by both HS2 and the TWf, this PAS provides common structural design rules for temporary works
in construction. It facilitates consistency in the design approach to temporary works and removes uncertainties for temporary works
designers. It has significant implications for the UK approach to safe structues, in particular appearing to lower our minimum lateral
stability requirements on temporary structures - first introduced by the Bragg Report.
ORDER FROM BSI: £106 ISBN 978 0 580 88172 5, London, January 2016, (64 pages)
by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- PAS 128: 2014 Specification for underground utility detection, verification and location.
Published in June 2014 as a "publicly available specification" developed by the ICE for BSI to ensure more accurate mapping of Britain's underground utilities.
Gives clear and unambiguous provision for ALL those engaged in the detection and verification of buried, active, unknown services at depths of up to 3m.
ORDER FROM BSI: ISBN 978 0 580 79824 5, London, June 2014, (36 pages) by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- BS EN 1995-1-1:2004+A2:2014 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures.
General. Common rules and rules for buildings.
This code updated in early 2014 gives general design rules for timber structures together with specific design rules for buildings.
It explains how some aspects of the design basis should be implemented for timber structures, and sets out certain aspects of design that are important for timber
but are not relevant to many other structural materials,particularly how to allow for the effects of duration of load and moisture content.
- BS EN 1991-1- 4:2005+A1:2011 EuroCode 1:Actions on Structures : Part 1-4:General Actions - Wind Loads.
First published in April 2005 has been amended in January 2011. The UK National Annex published seperately has also been amended. See also the PD 6688-1-4:2009 UK Wind background information to the National Annex.
152 pages ISBN 978 0 580 68497 5) Order from BSI: £246 by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- NA to BS EN 1991-1-1-4:2005+A1:2011 UK National Annex to Eurocode 1 - Actions on Structures - Wind Actions
First published in September 2008 has been amended in January 2011. This National Annex gives the relevant factors to allow the Eurocode 1 on WIND to be used in the UK. The Eurocode 1 uses a characteristic 10 minute mean wind speed!
42 pages ISBN 978 0 580 73818 0. Order from BSI: £170 by telephone +44 (0) 208 996 9001 or order by email to BSI Orders Office.
- PD 6688-1-4:2009 UK Wind background
The Published Document PD 6688 is background information to the National UK Wind Annex. ISBN 978 0 580 58273 8
- BS EN 12811-2: 2004 Temporary works equipment - Part 2: Information on materials.
Published 18th August 2004 gives guidance on where to find information on materials often used in temporary works. It gives structural properties, in characteristic terms for steel, cast iron and aluminium alloys. It also includes information from other design standards, such as EN 338 for structural timber to C16, C24 and C30 grades.(20 pages ISBN 0 580 44303 5)
- BS EN 1991-1-3:2003 General Actions - Snow Loads
This part of EuroCode 1 for Snow Loads was published in December 2004. It supercedes BS 6399-3 which is withdrawn. Order from BSI ISBN 0 580 42307 7
- BS EN 12811-3:2002 Temporary works equipment - Part 3: Load Testing.
This European Standard is now published by BSI to give rules for testing, documentation and evaluation of test results for non mechanical temporary works items (ISBN 0 580 40896 5)
- BS EN 13331-1:2002 Trench Lining Systems-1
Published in early 2003 it summarises the use of trench lining systems, drag boxes and slide rail trench systems.
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